Milagros Sáinz

Director of the Gender & ICT Research Programme

Gender-ICT_MilagrosSainz_recI graduated in Psychology at the University of Salamanca and received my PhD in Social Psychology (European Doctorate Degree) from the National University for Distance Education (UNED) in Madrid. I am currently working as a senior researcher at the Internet Interdisciplinary Institute (Universitat Oberta de Catalunya) in Barcelona, where I combine my full-time research activity with some undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. In 2007 my doctoral work was awarded with the First Prize INJUVE for Doctoral Dissertations by the former Ministry of Health, Equality, and Social Issues.

Since 2000 my research interests are related to family and school influences on study choices; gender role development during adolescence; gender stereotypes about ability self-concepts, achievement and task-choices; gendered construction of careers of occupations; and secondary school teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards technology and technological subjects. Recently I am also interested in cross-cultural research on educational outcomes. I use both quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches for looking at the different research topics I have interest in.

I have also been a pre-doctoral research fellow at Stanford University (California, United States) and the Technical University in Berlin (Germany), as well as a postdoctoral research fellow at the Institute for Social Research of the University of Michigan (Michigan, United States).

Since 2007 I am part of the editorial board of several international journals. I am also an active member of the Consortium for Cross-cultural Research on Education and of the Gender and STEM Network. Educational and Occupational Pathways and Participation.




Phone: +34 93 450 5262


Research Grants as Principal Investigator

I have participated in several research projects both as principal investigator and as part of the research team. Below some of the research grants as principal investigator are specified.

2018-2021: GESTEMI Effects and effectiveness of interventions aimed at increasing young women’s interest for science and technology. Research Grant funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (MINECO), State Research Agency (AEI) and European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) (reference number FEM2017-84589-R).

2015-2018: ESTEREO – Challenges associated to the persistance of gender roles and stereotypes in the choice of higher education studies from a longitudinal perspective. The role of families and secondary teachers. Research Grant funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) (reference number FEM2014-55096-R).

2016: Young people’s gender biases about STEM-related studies and occupations across different stages of the lifecourse. Wha is myth and what is reality. Research Grant funded by Fundación Telefónica.

2011-2014: EXPECTANCIES – The gender gap in the studies of science, technology, language and computing: Motivations and expectations of secondary students and teachers. Research Grant funded by the Spanish Ministry of science and innovation. (I+D+i 2011).

2011-2012: The professional trajectories of women in ICT: Dynamics beyond employment and public response. Research Grant funded by the Spanish Women’s Institute.

2010-2011: Evolution of the vocational segregation of students enrolled in last courses of primary and secondary education. Research Grant financed by the Catalonian Women’s Institute.

2008-2009: Why women do not pursue ICT-related studies? The leaky pipeline in the context of Catalonia. Grant financed by the Catalonian Women’s Institute.


Contributions as academic advisor 

Mateos Sillero, S. [Sara], & Gómez Hernández, C. [Clara]. (2019). Libro blanco de las mujeres en el ámbito tecnológico. Ministerio de Economía y Empresa. Secretaría de Estado para el Avance Digital. Retrieved from:

Tarín, C. [Carlota], Guerra, E. [Esther], Rivera, R. [Rafael], Fraile, A. [Alberto], Sáinz, M. [Milagros], & Madinaveitia, U. [Usúe]. (2018). Women in the Digital Age. European Comission. Retrieved from


Selection of journal articles

Sáinz, M. [Milagros], & Gallego, M. C. [María del Carmen] (2022). High school students’ sexist beliefs about academic abilities and women’s roles: The influence of School Specialization (Creencias sexistas de los estudiantes de enseñanza secundaria sobre las aptitudes académicas y el rol de las mujeres: la influencia de la especialización escolar). International Journal of Social Psychology

Petroff, A. [Alisa], Sáinz, M. [Milagros], & Arroyo, L. [Lídia]. (2021). A Multilevel Qualitative Perspective to Gendered Life Course, Socialization, and STEM Trajectories Among Emerging Adults in Spain. Emerging Adulthood, 1-13. [Advanced online publication]

Sáinz, M. [Milagros], Solé, J. [Jordi], Fàbregues, S. [Sergi], & Garcia-Cuesta, S. [Sara]. (2021). Secondary school teachers’ attitudes towards boys’ and girls’ achievement and study choices. Sage Open

Sáinz, M. [Milagros], Upadyaya, K. [Katja], & Salmela-Aro, K. [Katariina]. (2021). The Co-Development of Science, Math, and Language Interest Among Spanish and Finnish Secondary School Students. Front. Educ., 6, 684543.

González-Pérez, S. [Susana], Mateos de Cabo, R. [Ruth], & Sáinz, M. [Milagros]. (2020). Girls in STEM: Is It a Female Role-Model Thing? Front. Psychol., 11:2204. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02204

Sáinz, M. [Milagros], Fàbregues, S. [Sergi], & Solé, J. [Jordi]. (2020). Parent and Teacher Depictions of Gender Gaps in Secondary Student Appraisals of Their Academic Competences. Front. Psychol. 11:573752. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.573752

Sáinz, M. [Milagros], Martínez-Cantos, J. L. [José Luis], & Meneses, J. [Julio]. (2020). Gendered patterns of coping responses with academic sexism in a group of Spanish secondary students (Diferencias de género en las respuestas de afrontamiento del sexismo académico en un grupo de estudiantes españoles de secundaria)International Journal of Social Psychology. doi:10.1080/02134748.2020.1721049 

Sáinz, M. [Milagros], Fàbregues, S. [Sergi], Rodó-de-Zárate, M. [Maria], Martínez-Cantos, J. L. [José-Luis], Arroyo, L. [Lidia], & Romano, M. J. [María José]. (2020). Gendered Motivations to Pursue Male-Dominated STEM Careers Among Spanish Young People: A Qualitative StudyJournal of Career Development47(4), 408–423.

Sáinz, M. [Milagros], Martínez-Cantos, J. L. [José Luis], Rodó-de-Zárate, M. [Maria], Romano, M. J. [María José], Arroyo, L. [Lidia], & Fàbregues, S. [Sergi]. (2019). Young Spanish People’s Gendered Representations of People Working in STEM. A Qualitative StudyFrontiers in Psychology, 10, 996. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00996

Sáinz, M. [Milagros]. (2019). La bretxa de gènere en la tria d’estudis STEM i TIC, Nota d’Economia, 105. Generalitat de Catalunya. Departament de la Vicepresidència i d’Economia i Hisenda.

Sáinz, M. [Milagros], Fàbregues, S. [Sergi], Rodó-de-Zárate, M. [Maria], Martínez-Cantos, J. L. [José Luis], Arroyo, L. [Lidia], & Romano, M. J. [María José]. (2018). Gendered Motivations to Pursue Male-Dominated STEM Careers Among Spanish Young People. A Qualitative Study. Journal of Career Development, 1-16. [Advanced online publication]

Sáinz, M. [Milagros], & Meneses, J. [Julio]. (2018). Brecha y sesgos de género en la elección de estudios y profesiones en la educación secundaria. Panorama Social, 27, 23-31. Retrieved from:

Sáinz, M. [Milagros], & Müller, J. [Jörg]. (2018). Gender and family influences on Spanish students’ aspirations and values in stem fields. International Journal of Science Education, 40(2), 188-203. doi:10.1080/09500693.2017.1405464

Ficapal, P. [Pilar], Díaz, Á. [Ángel], Sáinz, M. [Milagros], & Torrent, J. [Joan]. (2018). Gender inequalities in job quality during the recession. Employee Relations, 40(1), 2-22. doi:10.1108/ER-07-2016-0139

Sáinz, M. [Milagros], Meneses, J. [Julio], Fàbregues, S. [Sergi], & López, B. [Beatriz]. (2016). Adolescents’ Gendered Portrayals of  Information and Communication Technologies Occupations. International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology, 8(2), 181-201.

Sáinz, M. [Milagros], & Upadyaya, K. [Katja]. (2016). Accuracy and bias in Spanish secondary school students’ self-concept of ability: The influence of gender and parental educational level. International Journal of Educational Research, 77, 26–36. doi:10.1016/j.ijer.2016.02.009

Sáinz, M. [Milagros], Meneses, J. [Julio], López, B. [Beatriz], & Fàbregues, S. [Sergi]. (2016). Gender stereotypes and attitudes towards ICT in a sample of Spanish secondary students. Sex Roles, 74(3-4), 154-168. doi:10.1007/s11199-014-0424-2

Sáinz, M. [Milagros]. (2013). El uso de las TIC en el ámbito educativo con perspectiva de género: actitudes del profesorado y alumnado. Telos, 95, 116-124. retrieved from:

Sáinz, M. [Milagros], & Eccles, J. [Jacquelynne]. (2012). Self-concept of computer and math ability: Gender implications across time and within ICT studies. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(2), 486–499. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2011.08.005

Sáinz, M. [Milagros], Palmén, R. [Rachel], & García-Cuesta, S. [Sara]. (2012). Parental and secondary teachers’ perceptions of ICT professionals, gender differences and their own role in the choice of studies. Sex Roles, 66(3-4), 235-249. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-0055-9.

Sáinz, M. [Milagros]. (2011). Factors Which Influence Girls’ Orientations to ICT Subjects In Schools. Evidence From Spain. International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology, 3(2), 387-406. Retrieved from: 

López-Sáez, M. [Mercedes], Puertas, S. [Susana], & Sáinz, M. [Milagros]. (2011). Why don’t girls choose technological studies? Adolescents’ stereotypes and attitudes towards studies related to Medicine or Engineering. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 14(1), 71-84. doi:10.5209/rev_SJOP.2011.v14.n1.6.

Sáinz, M. [Milagros], & López-Sáez, M. [Mercedes]. (2010). Gender differences in computer attitudes and the choice of technology-related occupations in a sample of secondary students in Spain. Computers and education, 2, 578-587. doi:org/10.1016/j.compedu.2009.09.007

López-Sáez, M. [Milagros], Lisbona, A. [Ana], & Sáinz, M. [Milagros]. (2004). Mujeres ingenieras: percepciones sobre su vida profesional. Revista de Psicología General y Aplicada, 5(2), 161-180. Retrieved from:

Sáinz, M. [Milagros], López-Sáez, M. [Mercedes], & Lisbona, A. [Ana]. (2004). Expectativas de rol profesional de mujeres estudiantes de carreras típicamente femeninas o masculinas. Acción Psicológica, 3(2), 111-123. doi:10.5944/ap.3.2.506



Flecha García, R. [Ramón] (Coord.), Dawson, E. [Emily], Ortega-Alonso, D. [Diego], Sáinz Ibáñez, M. [Milagros], Sordé Martí, T. [Teresa], Schiebinger, L. [Londa], & Trujillo Barbadillo, G. [Gracia] (2022). Hacia una comunicación inclusiva de la ciencia: Reflexiones y acciones de éxito. Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología (FECYT).

Gómez Díaz, M. J. [María José], López Sancho, J. M. [José María], Cejudo Rodríguez, S. [Salomé], Arranz Andrés, J. [Javier], Sáinz Ibáñez, M. [Milagros], & Moreno Gómez, E. [Esteban] (2021). Evaluación sobre la enseñanza de la ciencia con el modelo de El CSIC en la Escuela (informe). Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas CSIC – Vicepresidencia Adjunta de Organización y Cultura Científica (VAOCC).

Sáinz, M. [Milagros], Arroyo, L. [Lidia], & Castaño, C. [Cecilia]. (2020). Mujeres y digitalización. De las brechas a los algoritmos. Madrid: Instituto de la Mujer & doi:10.30923/MujDigBreAlg-2020

Sáinz, M. [Milagros]. (2020). Brechas y sesgos de género en la elección de estudios STEM. ¿Por qué ocurren y cómo actuar para eliminarlas? Sevilla: Centro de Estudios Andaluces.

Sáinz, M. [Milagros]. (Coord.) (2017). ¿Por qué no hay más mujeres STEM? Se buscan ingenieras, físicas y tecnólogas. Madrid: Fundación Telefónica y Editorial Ariel.

Castaño, C. [Cecilia], González Ramos, A. M. [Ana María], Müller, J. [Jörg], Palmén, R. [Rachel], Rodríguez, A. [Aurora], Sáinz, M. [Milagros], Vázquez, S. [Susana], & Vergés, N. [Núria]. (2011). Quiero ser informatic@. Barcelona: UOC.

Sáinz, M. [Milagros]. (2007). Aspectos psicosociales de las diferencias de género en actitudes hacia las nuevas tecnologías en adolescentes. Madrid: Instituto de la Juventud.


Selection of book chapters

Sáinz, M [Milagros]., González, S. [Susana] y Carrascal, S. [Silvia] (2022). Ampliando horizontes de las niñas y jóvenes STEAM. En S. [Silvia] Carrascal Domínguez y L. [Laura] Fernàndez Castro (Coord.). Las mujeres en distintos sectores de actividad en España. Evolución y liderazgo (pp. 107-134). Colección Mujer. EUNSA, Ediciones Universidad de Navarra.

Sáinz, M. [Milagros]. (2017). La tirania dels rols i estereotips de gènere en l’elecció d’estudis i professions. La tirania dels rols i estereotips de gènere en l’elecció d’estudis i professions. In I. [Isabel] Carrillo Flores (Ed.), Desfer la teranyina del gènere des de l’educació (pp. 85–106). Eumo Editorial.

Sáinz, M. [Milagros] & Martínez-Cantos, J. L. [José Luis]. (2017). Desigualdades de género en la percepción social de la ciencia y la tecnología en función de la edad y el nivel educativo. In J. [Josep] Lobera (Ed.), Percepción Social de la Ciencia y la Tecnología en España 2016 (pp. 235-276). Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología (FECYT).

Sáinz, M. [Milagros]. (2014). Sacando los pies del tiesto. Jóvenes y elección de estudios. In C. [Cecilia] Castaño & J. [Juliet] Webster (Dir.), Género, ciencia y tecnologías de la información (pp. 61-88). Aresta.

García-Cuesta, S. [Sara] & Sáinz, M. [Milagros]. (2012). Estudiar carreras TIC: los discursos del profesorado sobre las elecciones diferenciales y el género. In A. Guil, M. Pinero, J. Toscano, O. Macias, E. Pérez, C. Flecha (Eds.), Memorias del IX Congreso Iberoamericano de Ciencia, Tecnología y Género (pp. 1-10).

Sáinz Ibáñez, M. [Milagros], García-Cuesta, S. [Sara], Palmén, R. [Rachel] & Solé Blanch, J. [Jordi]. (2011). Influencia de los padres en la elección de estudios TIC. In M. J. [María José] Chivite, M. B. [María Beatriz] Hernández & M. E. [María Eugenia] Monzón (Eds.), Frontera y género. En los límites de la multidisciplinariedad (pp. 401–411). Plaza y Valdés.

Sáinz Ibáñez, M. [Milagros], Lopez, B. [Beatriz] & González Ramos, A. [Ana]. (2010). Participación femenina y políticas de género en los grupos de investigación. In C. [Cecilia] Castaño Collados (Ed.), Género y TIC: Presencia, posición y políticas (pp. 149-176). Editorial UOC.

Sáinz Ibáñez, M. [Milagors] & González Ramos, A. [Ana]. (2008). La segunda brecha digital: Educación e investigación. In C. [Cecilia] Castaño Collado (Ed.), La segunda brecha digital (pp. 221–266). Cátedra.

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